A well-organized process of harvesting with minimal losses is the necessary final stage of the crop growing technology. For ill-chosen method of harvesting, insufficient trained cleaning units can be significant losses of grain, roots, silage, hay and other processing losses of grain should not exceed 2 — 3 %. To a considerable extent the losses depend on the technique used. For example, combines “Niva”, “Kolos” structurally flawed. However thorough their regulation allows to minimize losses of grain yield.
The best are combine harvesters, in which the threshing unit (drum) placed in parallel during cleaning of the unit, instead of across, as in the old schemes.
Distinguish between direct and separate, one — and two-phase harvesting of grain, fodder, roots. So, wheat, barley, peas, depending on environmental conditions and debris fields that are harvested by direct combining or using split method. Direct combining is a more efficient process, associated with less loss of crop. However, buckwheat, millet, panic, sorghum harvested split method. They have stems in the phase of full ripeness of the plants remain green.
Seeds of forage grasses (alfalfa, clover, sainfoin, and grasses), usually collected separately.
When harvesting root and tuber crops first mow the tops, the tops, and then collect roots and tubers. Potato harvesters work well on sandy-loam and Legaspi-tion of the soil, and on uzkougolna potatoes after bleed sometimes picked by hand. For the best performance of sugar beet harvesters in these soils before harvesting carried deep loosening of the soil near the rows.
Separate collection of grass seed can be single or double, two-phase, i.e. conduct one or two to obsolete rolls. Two-phase threshing is mainly used in cleaning grass seed due to their uneven ripening. So, after the first threshing rolls meadow fescue, Jerzy team and other herbs leave them on the field and after 2 — 3 days re-threshed.
Alfalfa or clover should obolochki on the current. If obmolochennie weight are beans, threshed twice. Threshing rolls of alfalfa, clover, fescue, millet, panic, or other small-seeded crops should be well sealed threshing apparatus of the combine. Threshing alfalfa and clover use a different technology. Head removed (“Obst”) with plant roots specially equipped combine. The pile of heads and Bobby with admixtures of dry stalks and leaves of threshed in a stationary environment.
Recently developed various technological schemes threshing loaves, including on a current that took place before the widespread use of combine harvesters. However, this method is preferably used for threshing grass seed, roots and other crops.
Sugar and fodder beet harvesters collected by the production method. When the flow-transfer method excludes long stay on the field roots, because they wither, poorly stored, leading to losses of sugar beet and fodder.